The Different Types Of Magnets


Magnets are used in various fields and for hundreds of applications. They are very useful and their usage depends on the type and shape of the magnet. In fact, you can have them custom made to match your specific applications. But what are the major types of magnets?

Temporary – This type is usually iron and iron alloys that are magnetized using magnetic fields. The only problem is that they lose their magnetic properties gradually and over time, especially when the magnetic field is not present.

Permanent – They are naturally occurring and that retain their magnetic properties over a long period of time. The best examples are alnico and ferrites. Aluminum nickel cobalt alloy falls under alnico whereas ferrites are ceramic like materials made from mixing iron oxides with cobalt, strontium or nickel.

Electromagnets – They are very strong compared to the rest and are made by placing a metal core inside wire coils carrying electrical current. Once the electricity goes through the wire it produces the magnetic field and the core acts as the magnet as the energy flows through. These are used in electric motors, TVs and even computers and other devices.

Magnet shapes

Magnets are available in a wide range of sizes and shapes. The bigger they are the stronger they may be but this may not always be the case because even smaller sized magnets can be improved to take high strength using specific materials. However, the shape can tell a lot about the side and every shape influences how the magnet will be used. Generally, the shape determines the arrangement of the magnetic field outside the magnet and the strength of the pull. The most common magnet shapes are:

Bar magnets that have power focused on the poles and less on the sides, making this shape the weakest because of the small pole area. The shape is, however commonly used as a compass and refrigerator magnets or even for classroom demonstrations.

Horseshoe magnets are shaped in a U making them stronger because the poles point to the same direction. This is actually the universal shape of magnets and is used to pick metal objects of any size depending on strength of the magnet.

Other shapes that you will find available include sphere, disc, cylinder and ring. Considering that each shape determines the pull strength and possible applications, it is very important that you make, you make the right selection in relation to the application needs you have.

What about shattering magnets?

Shuttering magnet is a fairly new system created to fix formwork in concrete precast. They include the popular neodymium magnets and they have steel box housing and black epoxy material that keeps them from damage. These magnets are ideal for all precast concrete formwork constructions. They will prove functional whether for steel or wood shuttering. The magnets are designed with higher magnetic circuit levels, making offering very strong adhesive force to any given ferrous formwork. They can be customized in different powers and design to match specific requirements.


Source by Jovia D’Souza

Basic Motorcycle Riding Techniques


There are three basic techniques that every motorcycle rider should know. Even advanced motorcycle riders can use a refresher on the basics:

1. Head & eyes

2. Using the friction zone

3. Controlling the rear brake

First, you must master the “head and eyes” technique. This means exactly that wherever you look is where the motorcycle will go. The reason the phrase “head and eyes” is used is that if you turn your head to the left, but your eyes look straight ahead, this motorcycle riding technique won’t work. Both your head and eyes must turn in the direction you want the motorcycle to go. Don’t ever look down unless you want to go down. The “head and eyes” technique takes practice to become second nature. Fortunately, you can practice this riding technique every time you ride your motorcycle. For instance, if you are turning to the right from a stop sign, turn your head and eyes to the right, look down the road where you want the motorcycle to go and you’ll immediately notice you will be making a much tighter turn than normal. When you stop at a stop sign and are about to make a left hand turn, turn your head and eyes to the left, avoid looking at the curb or the center line of the road and focus on where you want the bike to end up and you will find you will never drift towards the curb or the center line of the road. You can even practice the “head and eyes” technique while riding a bicycle by making U-turns on the road in front of your own house.

Second, you must learn how to use the friction zone. The friction zone is the area on the clutch between fully open and fully closed. In other words, as you let the clutch out and the motorcycle starts to move, you’re entering the friction zone. A simple way to become accustomed to riding a motorcycle in the friction zone is to practice what’s called the slow race. That is merely going as slow as you possibly can without releasing the clutch all the way.

Third, you need to properly use the rear or controlling brake. With the bike in the friction zone, keep your foot on the rear brake and feather it as the motorcycle starts to move. By doing this you are making the bike think it’s going faster than it is. When you apply power and keep your foot on the rear brake, it keeps the bike from falling over at low speeds that is where most people have difficulty. I’ve never heard of anyone having problems balancing their bike at 50 or 60 MPH. If you don’t use these motorcycle riding techniques at 5 or 10 MPH, the motorcycle feels clumsy and wants to fall over on its side.

AVOID using the front brake at all costs when riding at parking lot speeds, as applying the front brake at 5 or 10 MPH with the handlebars turned even slightly will pull you to the ground like a magnet. Of course, once above parking lot speeds, you must use the front brake as well as the rear brake, as 70% of your braking power comes from the front brake.

Avoid dragging your feet along the ground as this tends to upset the balance of the bike, and of course, if your feet are dragging on the ground you cannot have your foot on the brake. As soon as you start to move your bike from a complete stop, both feet should automatically come up to the pegs or floorboards and your right foot should be feathering the rear brake. Once you conquer these 3 simple techniques, you will be amazed at the tight maneuvers your motorcycle can perform. You’ll know you’ve gotten it right when you can make full lock turns in both directions at 5 MPH with the pegs or boards scraping a perfect circle in the pavement.

Even if you have been through advanced motorcycle training, a refresher on the basics is always a good idea.

Remember, all it takes is a little practice on your motorcycle. Good Luck!


Source by Jerry Palladino

Impeller Logs and Compasses


Sailing and navigation…Measuring Direction and Distance

For Measuring distance at sea, the old type of log that gave us the knot as unit of speed has long since given way to more sophisticated mechanical and electronic devices.

Walker logs

One of the oldest is the Walker log. This uses a torpedo-shaped spinner a few inches long towed behind the boat on a length of braided line. As it moves through the water, spiral fins on the torpedo make it spin, twisting the line. The on-board end of the line is hooked on to the back of the log instrument, where it turns a shaft connected to a reduction gear box. This in turn moves the hands on a series of dials, rather like those of an old fashioned gas meter, to give Direct reading of the distance the spinner has moved through the water.

Advantages of the Walker log are its rugged simplicity and the ease with which weed or debris can be cleared from the pinner. Its disadvantages are that its display has to be mounted right at the back of the boat; that the log line (usually 30 or 60 feet in length) has to be streamed before the log can be used, and recovered before entering harbour; it tends to under-read at very low speeds; and at speeds over about ten knots the spinner is inclined to jump out of the water and skitter along the surface. There are definite techniques for streaming and recovering a mechanical trailing log, intended to reduce the risk of the line tangling. To stream the log, first attach the on-board end to the hook on the back of the display unit. Then, keeping the spinner in hand, feed out all the line to form a long U-shaped loop astern before dropping the spinner overboard, well off to one side of the loop. Some owners like to hold on to the line just astern of the display unit for a few seconds, just to absorb the snatch as the load comes on to the line.

When recovering the log, speed is essential, especially if the boat is moving fast. Unclip the inboard end from the hook on the back of the display, and drop it overboard, allowing it to trail out astern while you pull in the log line. Then holding the spinner, gather in the line, coiling it as you go. Trailing the line astern like this allows any kinks to unravel.

Electrical trailing logs

The electrical trailing log is superficially similar to a Walker log, inasmuch as it uses a spinner towed astern of the boat on a long line. In this case, however, the spinner is in two parts, and the ‘log line’ is an electrical cable. The front part of the spinner is attached to the cable and only the rear part is free to rotate. As it does so, an electronic sensor in the front part makes and breaks an electrical circuit, so the on-board display unit receives a short pulse of electricity each time the spinner rotates. These pulses are counted electronically and are presented as a digital display of speed and distance run.

The advantages and disadvantages of this type of log are much the same as for the mechanical Walker log except that it is dependent on electrical power from internal dry batteries, which in return allows the display unit to be mounted almost anywhere on board, and that because the line itself is not twisting, it is rather easier to stream and recover.

Hull-mounted impeller logs

On cruising boats, hull-mounted logs are by far the most popular type, though in principle they are much the same as the electrical trailing log: a rotating impeller sends a stream of electrical impulses to a display unit mounted in the cockpit or near the chart table.

The impeller – which can be either a miniature version of the trailing log’s spinner, or a paddle wheel an inch or so in diameter – is mounted in a fitting called a transducer, which either protrudes through the bottom of the boat or hangs down below the transom.

The disadvantages of this system are that an impeller so close to the hull can be affected by the water flow around the hull itself, and that it is difficult and potentially dangerous to withdraw the transducer to clear weed or debris from it at sea. The reason in-hull logs are so popular is primarily the convenience of not having to stream and recover 30 feet or more of log line at the beginning and end of each passage.

Other logs

At the top of the scale of price and sophistication are several alternative methods of measuring speed through the water:

Electromagnetic logs are based on the same principle as generators and electric motors: that electricity is created if you move a magnetic field past an electrical conductor. In this case the conductor is sea water and the magnetic field is created by the transducer. As the transducer moves through the water a small electric current is set up, measured by sensors on the transducer.

Sonic logs use accurate measurements of the speed of sound between two transducers mounted one ahead of the other. Each transducer emits a continuous stream of clicks, inaudible to the human ear, while listening for clicks transmitted from the other. When the boat is moving, the movement of the water past the hull slows down the clicks travelling forward whilst speeding up those travelling aft. The instrument accurately measures the time taken for each click to make the trip, compares them, converts the results into a display of speed through the water, and from this calculates the distance run.

Another type of sonic log uses sophisticated echo sounder technology to measure the rate at which plankton and debris are moving past its transducer.

The big advantages of all three types are that they are much less susceptible to fouling than ordinary in-hull logs and that they can go on working at very high speeds or in rough sea conditions, when turbulence or air bubbles make impeller logs unreliable.

Calibrating logs

No log can be relied upon to be 100 per cent accurate. This is particularly true of hull mounted logs because – quite apart from any inherent inaccuracies in the instrument itself – the gradual build-up of fouling as the season progresses means that the boat is dragging an ever-thickening layer of water along with it, so the water flow past the impeller will be slower than the boat speed through the water. Conversely, around some parts of the hull, such as alongside a sailing boat’s keel or near the propellers of a motor boat, the water flow may actually be accelerated, making the log over-read.

Errors can always be allowed for if you know about them, and most electronic logs have a calibration facility that allows them to be adjusted to take account of these variations. Finding, and if necessary, correcting, log error is known as calibration. In principle it involves measuring the time taken to cover a known distance, using this to calculate true speed, and comparing this with the speed indicated by the log. Any accurately-known distance can be used, though the best are undoubtedly the measured distances’ set up specially for the purpose. They consist of two (or sometimes three) pairs of transit posts, marking the start and finish of a precisely-measured distance, and shown on the appropriate chart. The course to steer to cover the Measured distance is also shown.

Settle the boat on course and at a steady speed before crossing the first transit line; note the time at which you cross the start ine and hold that course and speed without making any allowance for wind or tide until you cross the finish line, and note the time taken. Note the actual log reading at intervals of, say, 15 seconds so that you can work out the average log speed for the whole run.

As perfectly still water is rare, it is important to repeat the process in the opposite direction. Having found the speed over the ground in both directions, the speed through the water can be calculated by taking the average, by adding the two speeds together and dividing by two.

A more accurate result can be obtained by making four or six runs, but this can be a very

time-consuming process, especially as log errors are not necessarily the same at all speeds, so the calibration runs need to be carried out at a range of different speeds, and repeated as a double check after the log has been adjusted.

A common mistake is to work out the average time taken and divide the distance by this. The result invariably understates the boat’s speed, because it must have been travelling in the ‘slow’ direction longer than in the ‘fast’ direction.

Some large scale charts (harbour plans) have a clearly marked scale of distance – rather like the one you might find on a road atlas – usually printed somewhere near the bottom edge. But this is not always the case, and on the smaller scale charts used for coastal and offshore navigation it would be impractical to provide such a scale because the scale of the chart varies slightly from top to bottom. One sea mile, however, is by definition one minute of latitude, so the latitude scales on each side of the chart constitute a scale of distance.

The slight difference between a sea mile and an international nautical mile is so small that for normal navigation it can be ignored: what is important, on small scale charts, is the distortion caused by the Mercator projection, which means that distance has to be measured at the latitude at which it is to be used. The longitude scale on the top and bottom edges of the chart is useless as a scale of distance.

It is relatively rare to find ourselves faced with the job of measuring distance in an exactly north-south line, so we need some means of transferring the distance between any two points on the chart to the latitude scale. Dividers are the tool for the job. For classroom navigation the kind of dividers used in technical drawing are perfectly adequate, and their sharp needle points give a reassuring sense of precision, but for practical navigation, traditional bow dividers have the big advantage that they can be opened and closed with one hand, by squeezing the bow to open them, and squeezing the legs to close them.

Sometimes it is necessary to draw arcs of measured radius on the chart, for which it is useful to have a drawing compass. Again, the type intended for technical drawing can be used so long as it is big enough, but it is generally better to use the larger and less sophisticated versions intended for marine navigation.

Compasses and Measuring direction at sea

Direction at sea is measured using a compass – essentially an instrument which points north, and goes on pointing north regardless of the movement of the boat around it. In practice most yachts carry at least two compasses. One, steering compasses are relatively large, fixed to the boat, and used to measure heading. The other is usually smaller, portable and is used to measure the direction of distant objects, so it is called a hand bearing compass. Sometimes one compass can do both jobs: on many ships and a few large yachts an attachment called a pelorus allows the steering compass to be used for taking bearings, while on very small craft, a hand bearing compass clipped into a bracket can serve as a steering compass.

There are many ways of making an instrument that will stay pointing in one Direction, including gyroscopes, and what are called ‘ring laser gyros’, but although these have their advantages, they are much too sophisticated, and therefore expensive, to be of practical interest for yachts. The Overwhelming majority of yacht compasses Depend on magnetism, and in that respect can be seen as direct developments from instruments that were probably in use several thousand years ago. Compasses make use of the fact that the earth has a magnetic field, which is very much as though a huge bar magnet were embedded in its core and aligned with its North-South axis.

Any magnet that is free to swing tends to line itself up with the earth’s magnetic field. This effect is particularly obvious in the small, flat compasses used for orienteering and rambling on land, in which a single straight needle-like magnet gives a direct Indication of north. In marine compasses, several such magnets, or a single magnet in the shape of a ring, are mounted underneath a circular ‘card’, with a scale of degrees or compass points marked on it. The whole thing is suspended in a bowl filled with a mixture of water and alcohol, which slows Down the movement of the card, to reduce the swinging that would otherwise be caused by the pitching and rolling of the boat.

Compasses intended for fast motor boats are much more heavily damped than those intended for sailing craft; the rapid slamming of a planing boat can be enough to make the card of a sailboat compass rotate continuously.

Steering compasses

On a steering compass the fore-and-aft line of the boat is marked by a line or pointer on the compass bowl, called the lubber line, against which the boat’s current heading can be read from the card, so it is obviously important for the compass to be installed so that the lubber line is accurately aligned with, or parallel to, the centre line of the boat. Many compasses have supplementary lubber lines offset by 45° and 90° on each side, intended mainly for use in situations such as tiller-steered boats where the helmsman is likely to be looking at the compass from one side or the other.

Of course, there are variations intended to suit particular applications. On many small and medium sized sailing yachts, where cockpit space is at a premium, the compass is set into the aft bulkhead of the superstructure, so that the rear edge of the card is visible, rather than its upper surface. A compass intended for this type of mounting has an aft lubber line and a scale of degrees marked on the down-turned rim of the card. An even more extreme variation is occasionally found in compasses intended for steel craft, whose structure effectively masks the compass from the earth’s magnetic field. This problem can be reduced by mounting the compass as high above the hull as possible, so compasses have been produced that can be mounted on the wheelhouse roof, with mirrors or prisms arranged so that the helmsman effectively looks upwards at the bottom of the compass card.

Grid compasses

Grid compasses, intended primarily for aircraft navigation, enjoyed a surge of popularity after the Second World War, when many boats were fitted out from Army surplus stores! The claim that they were easier to steer by maintained their popularity for at least 20 years and several marinized versions were produced. A grid compass has a card with a particularly prominent north set in a flat-topped bowl. On top of the bowl is a transparent cover, marked with a grid of parallel lines and with a scale of degrees es around its edge. The required course is set by rotating the cover, and the helmsman then steers so as to keep the –. mark on the card lined up with the grid.

Hand bearing compasses

A hand bearing compass is basically a small, portable version of a steering compass, fitted with some form of sighting arrangement that allows it to be accurately lined up on a distant object. They can be subdivided into two groups: those intended to be used at arm’s length, which are usually fitted with a handle; and those intended to be held close to the eye, which are usually supplied with a neck strap. Which kind is best is very much a matter of personal preference, but anyone who uses spectacles or a hearing aid is well advised to go for an arm’s-length compass because even small pieces of ferrous metal such as the hinges of spectacles can cause compass errors if they are only inches away.

Sighting arrangements vary. The classic Sestrel Radiant, for instance, has a prism mounted above the bowl, with a V-shaped notch on top. When the compass is held up at arm’s length and eye level the lubber line and compass card can be seen in the prism. To take a bearing of a distant object, you line up the ‘target’ with the notch, rotate the compass until the lubber line appears in the prism immediately below the target, and then read off the bearing. Another common arrangement has two sights on top of the bowl, like the fore sight and back sight of a gun, and an edge-reading compass card. Close-to-the-eye compasses do not have such obvious sighting arrangements: instead they have a small prism mounted on top, whose optics are arranged in such a way that when you look at a landmark across the top of the compass, its bearing appears in the prism immediately below.

Fluxgate compasses

A new type of compass is rapidly gaining in popularity. Unlike a conventional ‘swinging card’ compass, a fluxgate compass has no moving parts, but instead uses electronics to detect the earth’s magnetic field and present that information on some kind of display. A fluxgate depends on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction – as used in transformers and the ignition coil of a petrol engine. If you pass an electric current through a coil of wire wound around a suitable metal core, the core becomes a magnet. Which end is the north pole, and which the south, depends on the direction of the current flow in the wire, so if you apply an alternating current to the wire, the north and south poles of the core change places each time the current reverses. If you have a second coil of wire wound around this whole assembly the constantly-reversing magnetic field induces an electric current in the secondary winding.

In a fluxgate there are two cores side by side, with their primary windings receiving alternating current from the same source, but wound in opposite directions. This means that in a magnetically ‘clean’ environment (with no external magnetic influences) the induced magnetism in the two cores would be equal and opposite, so they would cancel each other out and produce no current at all in the secondary winding that surrounds both of them. The presence of an external magnetic field upsets the balance, causing a short surge of electricity in the secondary winding each time the primary current reverses. This effect is most pronounced if the two cores are parallel to the external magnetic field. In a practical fluxgate compass, several fluxgates are arranged in a circle. By comparing the voltages induced in the various secondary windings it is possible to deduce where north is relative to the ring of flux-gates.

At present, the most common use of this technology is to provide heading information for other electronic equipment such as autopilots or radars, but it can also be used to provide a steering display for the helmsman or as the heart of an electronic hand bearing compass. Apart from the ease with which fluxgate compasses can be connected to other navigational electronics, their big advantages are that they can be fitted with an automatic correction facility, and that because the sensor and display are usually separate from each other, the sensor can be mounted anywhere on board and well away from distorting magnetic Influences. Fluxgate hand bearing compasses also have the facility to ‘store’ headings, to save the navigator having to memorize them.

Their main disadvantage is that very large errors can occur if the fluxgate ring is not kept perfectly horizontal. There are electronic solutions to this problem, but the fact remains that the compass without moving parts actually requires more sophisticated gimbal arrangements than its swinging card counterparts.


Source by John Routledge

Electrify Your Home For Nothing!


Do you realize that you can get rid of part or all of your electricity bill by assembling your own, low-cost permanent magnet generator? There is zero expense to produce electrical current this way, even though the apparatus requires some electricity to keep it spinning up to speed. The apparatus even generates its own power for that. After it is functioning at full speed, it needs no outside electricity at all to keep it spinning perpetually. Actually, these machines are capable of producing around five times the current they consume to keep functioning.

How much do the parts cost to put together a permanent magnet generator? The cost may astound you: Between one hundred and five hundred dollars, depending on the size of the permanent magnetic generator and, even better, the parts are easily obtainable just about anywhere. You can get them at your nearby hardware or home improvement store.

Complete schematics, parts lists and instructions are currently accessible for a very low price, often less than $50. These directions are so trouble-free to work from that just about any person can easily construct a permanent magnet generator without help. After you have built one or two for yourself, it is easy to begin a money-making venture centered on making these generators for the public. If you end up producing more electric power than you can make use of and if you are still connected to city power, you can sell the surplus back to the electric company when your meter operates backwards.

Permanent magnet generators are pollution-free and emit no toxic fumes. They are not noisy and don’t need much room. You might even locate one inside a city apartment to cut your electricity bill to nothing. Some people construct small permanent magnet generators to furnish part of their power needs, thus shrinking their monthly invoice from the electric power company. Others put together bigger permanent magnet generators that can deliver around 7000 watts, enough to electrify a small house. If you require even more electricity, you can easily harness the output of 2 or more machines together to create any quantity of free electrical current.

To give you a concept of what seven thousand watts of current can power, I own a sixteen hundred square foot dwelling in Hawaii that has been completely run on solar power since 1999. It has an array of forty solar panels, each with an output of 75 watts. 40 x 75 watts = 3000 watts. With just three thousand watts (and a battery bank), I can use my computer and refrigerator all day, cook my meals in a microwave oven and use a toaster. At night, I can watch 1 or 2 DVD’s while powering a small TV and a surround sound system. I keep the lights switched off when not needed. All light bulbs are the fluorescent type.

In the summer, when the Hawaiian sun shines brightly from dawn to dusk, I do not even need to consider how much electricity I am utilizing. In the winter, when the days are shorter and when there are more gray days, I have to turn off the main power switch before I go to bed and turn it back on at daybreak. The electrical refrigerator just “coasts” all night and the food is still reasonably cold in the morning. Where I run into run into difficulty is if I have to deal with an all-day overcast for 2 or more consecutive days. Then, I need to use a back-up three thousand-watt gasoline generator to keep the house operating and the solar batteries charged. This happens perhaps three to four times a winter and hardly ever in the summer.

A permanent magnet generator, unlike a solar system or a wind turbine, can operate twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week and it generates the identical amount of power day and night, rain or shine. You can make use of it to run a battery bank, like solar (but around the clock) or you can easily eliminate the costly, high-maintenance batteries and drive your breaker panel directly. I could use a permanent magnet generator to replace my gasoline solar backup generator. I did not know about permanent magnet generators in 1999 when I paid over $30,000 to create my solar electric system. I will soon need to replace the six giant solar batteries which will cost another $14,000.

Similar to an electric motor, a permanent magnet generator contains moving parts, so it does need a certain, small amount of periodic maintenance due to wear and tear. A permanent magnet generator, running constantly should last at least ten years. And, when it finally does wear out, the cost of building (or rebuilding) a replacement is very low, as has already been discussed.

A permanent magnet generator operates on the principle of attracting and repelling magnetic poles. An array of permanent magnets drives a flywheel which, in turn, spins a generator. In short, it uses magnets and magnetic force to produce perpetual electricity. It will continue functioning, even in extreme heat or below-freezing temperatures.

If you are thinking that all of this is too good to be true, just know that hundreds of these permanent magnet generators have already been made, around the world, and most of them are functioning very well. What better proof could you require?

© 2011 Robert M. Gillespie, Jr.

About the Author:


Source by Bob Gillespie

How Does a Magnetic Speed Sensor Work?


For centuries speed sensors have been used to determine the speed of moving objects. In fact, the very first primitive speed sensors were lengths of rope with a knots tied in them that were tossed over the sides of moving ships to determine how many “knots” the ship was traveling at. However; the advent of the motorized wheeled carriage created the need for a more advanced mechanical speed sensor, such as the type that used a gear and a cable to run a speedometer on an automobile.

A Technological Need

As time and technology progressed however, the need for other types of accurate speed sensors developed. This in turn led to the development of what is often referred to as the magnetic speed sensor. So how do they work? How can a magnet detect and transmit the speed of a moving object?

The Hall Effect

It is not just the magnet in a magnetic speed sensor that is used to determine speed but an electrical current that surrounds the magnet as well. There is a certain electrical phenomena called the “Hall effect” that is used to determine the speed of an object with a magnet.

An Electrical Current

In short, when an electrical current is ran near a magnet and the magnet detects ferrous metal such as iron or steel the electrical current is effected. This electrical effect can then be transmitted by wires to a speed gauge where it can be displayed.

Gear Toothed Magnetic Sensor

Often a gear is used in conjunction with a magnetic speed sensor. As the gear spins or turns, each spline or tooth in it will be detected by the magnet as it passes and a corresponding electrical pulse is sent out. The faster the gear spins the faster the electrical pulses the sensor sends and thus a speed reading is made.


Source by Rosa Telip Ten

Functions And Applications Of DC Motors


The Direct Current motor or the DC motor helps to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is used in majority of household applications and electronic devices. It is widely used in CD players, computers, remote control airplanes, electric razors and so forth. Some of the most important parts of the Direct Current motor include the rotor, armature, stator, commutators with brushes. It is considered to be the simplest types of motor used in many of the electrical appliances. Compared to the AC motor, it is more controllable and powerful.

Working Procedure of DC Motors

A field of magnetism is created inside the device as it is equipped with magnets and electromagnetic windings. An armature is placed in between the south and north poles of the magnet inside the motor. When power is passed throughout the armature, the magnetic field interacts with the field generated by the armature. The opposite polarity causes the motor to turn.

There are basically three types of DC motors which include the stepper motor, the brushed and the brushless motors.

Stepper Motors: One of the most common varieties of Direct Current motors includes the stepper motor. These electrical brushless motors function on the basis of electromagnets that rotate the internal shaft. There are computer controlled stepper motors available in most of the online and offline shops. It is widely used in satellites, Floppy drives, CD drives, toys and scanners. Due to its functional operations, it can be controlled quite easily. But the stepper motors require an external controller as it includes low power.

Brushed Motor: The Brushed motors are considered to be the standard dc motors that can be powered by any type of Direct Current battery. It includes a split run commutator. However, these devices have certain drawbacks. The brushes and the commutator ring come into contact with one another which create friction and considerable damage to the ring and the brushes. Both the ring and the brushes will require constant replacements. The modern brushes are made of carbon which is durable compared to the copper wires. It also causes less friction. These devices are less expensive and easy to operate.

Brushless Motors: As these motors do not include brushes, it is considered to be the most appropriate device. It is durable and includes less maintenance. It is also efficient and powerful compared to the other types of Direct Current motors. It includes an external commutator and a rotor which reverses the direction of the current.

As this motor does not include brushes, there is hardly any possibility of friction and equipment damage. It can therefore be used or heavy machineries and electrical equipments. It is also considered to be cost efficient and durable. It is also cooler than the AC motors and so it last longer.

The DC motor is used in different applications such as boring mills, weaving machines, lathes, shapers and spinning machines. It is also used in air compressors, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, elevators and hair dryers. Apart from these, it is used for a wide variety of industrial purposes.


Source by Anamika Swami

Magnetic Power Generators Pros and Cons – 3 Things to Know Before You Start Making Your Own


These are the top three things to know before you start building your own magnetic energy generator. While magnetic power is a great source of renewable energy, it also naturally has its flaws. Find out below whether the pros or cons are stronger:

Pro for Building A Magnetic Power Generator

Like solar power and wind power, magnetic power is completely renewable, which means that it is never exhausted. Once you set up your magnetic power generator, it generate you free electricity as long as it is in motion. Thus it becomes an excellent source of electricity for your household.

Magnetic power generation is indeed a fascinating concept. As long as the magnetic field is operational and the rotor is moving, your magnetic power generator is generating electricity for you. True, the magnetic power generator is not that easy to devise and get going, but once you have gotten it to move, you are only making profit. Therefore, it is simply a matter of time for your investment in time and materials to pay for itself. Therefore, magnetic energy generation should definitely be considered in case you are looking to make your own electricity on a consistent basis for years to come.

Con against Magnetic Power Generators

A magnetic generator makes you free electricity, that is for sure. However, it is also quite hard to build and does not make that much electricity. It is no surprise that you do not hear about people making magnetic generators all over the place. So what are the major reasons that people do not go for magnetic generators?

Magnetic generators, unlike solar panels or wind turbines, are not expensive to buy or make. However, they are pretty difficult to make – you need to have sufficient knowledge about magnetic energy and you need to be ready to spend a good amount of time on building your generator. So what is the return on your investment in time and money? It is pretty low in fact, as magnetic power generators do not really make you that much electricity. It takes pretty long, several hours, for a magnetic generator to charge a simple 12V battery. So, in order to make the impact of magnetic power generation significant in your household, you would need to build several of them. This necessity to scale up the whole operation makes a strong con argument against magnetic energy generation.

Pro for Magnetic Energy Generation

Now that things are hanging in the balance with one pro and one con for your magnetic power generation project, the deciding argument has to be made. And this argument comes from the fact that you could offset the time and effort factor against your generator with the argument that magnetic power is a really unobtrusive and independent of natural conditions renewable energy source.

Yes, making a magnetic energy generator is hard, but you can make your own, if you put some time in it, using a proper Do It Yourself guide. Once you have been instructed on how to make your magnetic generator, it is not so hard to do and even a person who is not so confident in electrical installations or general technical work can do it. There are books available, which provide you with textual and visual step-by-step guidance in the process of building your own magnetic power generator. Some of them even have videos, which make it even easier to understand. With this guidance, magnetic generator systems should definitely be looked more deeply into!

These were the top 3 things to know when considering whether to make your own magnetic energy system. There were two pros and one con, so it seems that the argument for magnetic energy systems wins. Definitely, the conclusion is that you can be profitable with a magnetic generator if you make it yourself using a proper step-by-step guide and scale up your efforts. If you have made your mind to make a generator, you can find reviews of several step-by-step guides on the below address. Enjoy making your own magnetic generator!


Source by Nic Masters

Magnetic Energy and Its Applications


Magnetic energy or magnetism is the force exerted between the two magnetic poles, producing magnetization. A magnetic field is an area around the magnet where magnetic or electrical force can be experienced and is a vector quantity which has both direction and magnitude.

Any object that can produce its own magnetic field is a magnet and the direction of magnetic field is the alignment of iron filings placed on a paper over a bar magnet. These imaginary lines are useful mathematical calculations and studies. Electrical currents also produce magnetic fields likewise magnetic fields also exert forces on moving electrical charges.

In fact electricity and magnetism are the same and are related by he two phenomena are related by Maxwell’s equations. Whereas electro magnetic energy will have both electrical and magnetic components and X rays, infra red rays, visible light and radio waves are all examples of electro magnetic radiation. Though these are basically electromagnetic rays their wavelengths and frequencies are different and hence behave differently. X rays are high frequency and short wavelength rays whereas microwave has longer wavelength and low frequencies.

One form of energy can be converted into another form by using converters like batteries or turbines. For instance in dry cells or batteries chemical energy is converted into electrical energy whereas in hydro electric dam potential energy is converted into electrical energy.

Magnetic energy is a good source of renewable energy, which can be recycled to meet the energy needs of the world without causing pollution and it can also be used for even household energy requirements and then recycle the energy back into the environment without producing pollution. The reputed car maker, “Peugeot’ has made use of the same polarity magnetic field application in designing its car, Magnet”. Magnetic energy is a great source of energy and a pollution free replacement for fossil fuels, which is the main reason for global warming and degradation of ecosystem.


Source by Simon Waker Haughtone

Perpetual Motion Generator – A Genius Invention For Home Electricity


For any home owner, one of the biggest monthly expenses is very often the electricity bill. The cost of electricity is more often than not the second biggest expense behind your mortgage. This is hardly surprising given the ever increasing prices of electricity and it is the primary reason why many people today are actively seeking ways to reduce their electricity bills.

It is widely accepted that wind and solar power are two of the most common forms of renewable home energy and rightly so. They are super renewable forms of free energy which are both sustainable in the long term. However, there is one other form of renewable energy for the home which many people are currently unaware exists. It is the idea of producing power by using a perpetual motion magnetic generator.

A perpetual motion generator is largely based on the principal of moving magnetic flow for creating electrical power. This is done by utilizing the attraction and repelling forces of magnets to produce the kinetic energy required to spin a central core of an electricity generator.

These generators can be used to charge a battery bank at home and they can be used easily and safely to provide electricity for your electrical appliances. By running your electrical items from your perpetual motion generator, you will be using less energy from the power grid resulting in a significant decrease in your electricity bills.

If you are genuinely serious about the possibility of building your own perpetual motion generator, you will require high quality work plans to guide you through the process. Don’t be put off by this as they are actually very straightforward to build as long as you follow the right instructions.

A quality guide will clearly describe all of the components required and when and where to fit individual items ensuring your generator is built safely and accurately. You will be shown all of the required electrical components such as the diode, resistor, transistor and switches and provided you have a basic level of DIY skills, you should have no problems building your own generator.

Remember also that unlike solar and wind energy, a Perpetual Motion Generator does not rely on the weather and can be stored in your home or garage. They are a revolutionary way to save on home electricity and lets not also forget the great environmental benefits they have by producing a free, clean and sustainable energy supply to your home.


Source by James K Stewart

Troy Reed Magnetic Motor – Power Your Car And Your Home For Free


The Troy Reed Magnetic Motor is one of many examples of magnetic motor technology. Troy Reed was one of many enthusiasts who tinkered away to develop his own motor based on zero point technology – this allows for the production of power from magnetism and has shattered the world of conventional physics. In this article, I’ll tell you more about the motor and Reed’s other inventions and how you can use this technology yourself so that you don’t ever have to pay for an electricity bill again.

1994 – Try Reed Announces His Magnetic Motor To The World

Reed demonstrated his motor to the world in 1994. He claimed that it could generate 7 kilowatts of power output which is more than enough for the average household’s needs (3 kilowatts).

In his demonstration video, he shows clearly that no wires are attached to the motor while the demonstration bulb remains lit. This would prove that the bulb was not lit via some other power source but was indeed being powered indefinitely by only the motor itself.

The Surge Car

When Reed announced his magnetic motor to the world, he explained that the 7-kilowatt output was sufficient to also power a regular automobile. He teamed up with Hollywood actor and environmentalist, Dennis Weaver, with a plan to showcase this to the world.

The Surge Car was capable of speeds of up to 85 miles per hour. Various videos of it can be found on the internet, with the motor fitting neatly into the engine compartment. Unfortunately, the project never gained any real traction.

How Does Reed’s Magnetic Motor Work?

Nobody knows 100% precisely the design of Reed’s motor. However, it is no secret that it is based on magnetic motor/zero point technology. Reed is not the first person to have produced working models of this technology and he was also not that last.

Zero point physics says that the forces due to magnetism can be converted into energy. This is unlike conventional ideas on power generation which usually require depletion of fuels.

Most magnetic motors require a kick-start of energy to get them going. After this, the system is in a state of equilibrium – the frictional forces from the bearings and air resistance that normally slow a motor down are instead balanced out by the repelling force of the magnets.

How To Make Your Own Troy Reed Magnetic Motor

Unfortunately, commercial devices are at least five years away. But the good news is that you can make your own device at home.

Reed’s motor, like many others, is unnecessarily over-complicated. Instead of trying to copy his design, you will be much better off with a simpler version that will run reliably and with little maintenance.

If you want to make your own 7-kilowatt idea then a better idea is to investing a small amount (around $50) on a good set of working, proven and reliable plans. These will allow you to get up and running in a few days compared to the more usual months and years that pioneers such as Reed and others have spent in trying to come up with a working solution.


Source by Scott Harris