Impeller Logs and Compasses


Sailing and navigation…Measuring Direction and Distance

For Measuring distance at sea, the old type of log that gave us the knot as unit of speed has long since given way to more sophisticated mechanical and electronic devices.

Walker logs

One of the oldest is the Walker log. This uses a torpedo-shaped spinner a few inches long towed behind the boat on a length of braided line. As it moves through the water, spiral fins on the torpedo make it spin, twisting the line. The on-board end of the line is hooked on to the back of the log instrument, where it turns a shaft connected to a reduction gear box. This in turn moves the hands on a series of dials, rather like those of an old fashioned gas meter, to give Direct reading of the distance the spinner has moved through the water.

Advantages of the Walker log are its rugged simplicity and the ease with which weed or debris can be cleared from the pinner. Its disadvantages are that its display has to be mounted right at the back of the boat; that the log line (usually 30 or 60 feet in length) has to be streamed before the log can be used, and recovered before entering harbour; it tends to under-read at very low speeds; and at speeds over about ten knots the spinner is inclined to jump out of the water and skitter along the surface. There are definite techniques for streaming and recovering a mechanical trailing log, intended to reduce the risk of the line tangling. To stream the log, first attach the on-board end to the hook on the back of the display unit. Then, keeping the spinner in hand, feed out all the line to form a long U-shaped loop astern before dropping the spinner overboard, well off to one side of the loop. Some owners like to hold on to the line just astern of the display unit for a few seconds, just to absorb the snatch as the load comes on to the line.

When recovering the log, speed is essential, especially if the boat is moving fast. Unclip the inboard end from the hook on the back of the display, and drop it overboard, allowing it to trail out astern while you pull in the log line. Then holding the spinner, gather in the line, coiling it as you go. Trailing the line astern like this allows any kinks to unravel.

Electrical trailing logs

The electrical trailing log is superficially similar to a Walker log, inasmuch as it uses a spinner towed astern of the boat on a long line. In this case, however, the spinner is in two parts, and the ‘log line’ is an electrical cable. The front part of the spinner is attached to the cable and only the rear part is free to rotate. As it does so, an electronic sensor in the front part makes and breaks an electrical circuit, so the on-board display unit receives a short pulse of electricity each time the spinner rotates. These pulses are counted electronically and are presented as a digital display of speed and distance run.

The advantages and disadvantages of this type of log are much the same as for the mechanical Walker log except that it is dependent on electrical power from internal dry batteries, which in return allows the display unit to be mounted almost anywhere on board, and that because the line itself is not twisting, it is rather easier to stream and recover.

Hull-mounted impeller logs

On cruising boats, hull-mounted logs are by far the most popular type, though in principle they are much the same as the electrical trailing log: a rotating impeller sends a stream of electrical impulses to a display unit mounted in the cockpit or near the chart table.

The impeller – which can be either a miniature version of the trailing log’s spinner, or a paddle wheel an inch or so in diameter – is mounted in a fitting called a transducer, which either protrudes through the bottom of the boat or hangs down below the transom.

The disadvantages of this system are that an impeller so close to the hull can be affected by the water flow around the hull itself, and that it is difficult and potentially dangerous to withdraw the transducer to clear weed or debris from it at sea. The reason in-hull logs are so popular is primarily the convenience of not having to stream and recover 30 feet or more of log line at the beginning and end of each passage.

Other logs

At the top of the scale of price and sophistication are several alternative methods of measuring speed through the water:

Electromagnetic logs are based on the same principle as generators and electric motors: that electricity is created if you move a magnetic field past an electrical conductor. In this case the conductor is sea water and the magnetic field is created by the transducer. As the transducer moves through the water a small electric current is set up, measured by sensors on the transducer.

Sonic logs use accurate measurements of the speed of sound between two transducers mounted one ahead of the other. Each transducer emits a continuous stream of clicks, inaudible to the human ear, while listening for clicks transmitted from the other. When the boat is moving, the movement of the water past the hull slows down the clicks travelling forward whilst speeding up those travelling aft. The instrument accurately measures the time taken for each click to make the trip, compares them, converts the results into a display of speed through the water, and from this calculates the distance run.

Another type of sonic log uses sophisticated echo sounder technology to measure the rate at which plankton and debris are moving past its transducer.

The big advantages of all three types are that they are much less susceptible to fouling than ordinary in-hull logs and that they can go on working at very high speeds or in rough sea conditions, when turbulence or air bubbles make impeller logs unreliable.

Calibrating logs

No log can be relied upon to be 100 per cent accurate. This is particularly true of hull mounted logs because – quite apart from any inherent inaccuracies in the instrument itself – the gradual build-up of fouling as the season progresses means that the boat is dragging an ever-thickening layer of water along with it, so the water flow past the impeller will be slower than the boat speed through the water. Conversely, around some parts of the hull, such as alongside a sailing boat’s keel or near the propellers of a motor boat, the water flow may actually be accelerated, making the log over-read.

Errors can always be allowed for if you know about them, and most electronic logs have a calibration facility that allows them to be adjusted to take account of these variations. Finding, and if necessary, correcting, log error is known as calibration. In principle it involves measuring the time taken to cover a known distance, using this to calculate true speed, and comparing this with the speed indicated by the log. Any accurately-known distance can be used, though the best are undoubtedly the measured distances’ set up specially for the purpose. They consist of two (or sometimes three) pairs of transit posts, marking the start and finish of a precisely-measured distance, and shown on the appropriate chart. The course to steer to cover the Measured distance is also shown.

Settle the boat on course and at a steady speed before crossing the first transit line; note the time at which you cross the start ine and hold that course and speed without making any allowance for wind or tide until you cross the finish line, and note the time taken. Note the actual log reading at intervals of, say, 15 seconds so that you can work out the average log speed for the whole run.

As perfectly still water is rare, it is important to repeat the process in the opposite direction. Having found the speed over the ground in both directions, the speed through the water can be calculated by taking the average, by adding the two speeds together and dividing by two.

A more accurate result can be obtained by making four or six runs, but this can be a very

time-consuming process, especially as log errors are not necessarily the same at all speeds, so the calibration runs need to be carried out at a range of different speeds, and repeated as a double check after the log has been adjusted.

A common mistake is to work out the average time taken and divide the distance by this. The result invariably understates the boat’s speed, because it must have been travelling in the ‘slow’ direction longer than in the ‘fast’ direction.

Some large scale charts (harbour plans) have a clearly marked scale of distance – rather like the one you might find on a road atlas – usually printed somewhere near the bottom edge. But this is not always the case, and on the smaller scale charts used for coastal and offshore navigation it would be impractical to provide such a scale because the scale of the chart varies slightly from top to bottom. One sea mile, however, is by definition one minute of latitude, so the latitude scales on each side of the chart constitute a scale of distance.

The slight difference between a sea mile and an international nautical mile is so small that for normal navigation it can be ignored: what is important, on small scale charts, is the distortion caused by the Mercator projection, which means that distance has to be measured at the latitude at which it is to be used. The longitude scale on the top and bottom edges of the chart is useless as a scale of distance.

It is relatively rare to find ourselves faced with the job of measuring distance in an exactly north-south line, so we need some means of transferring the distance between any two points on the chart to the latitude scale. Dividers are the tool for the job. For classroom navigation the kind of dividers used in technical drawing are perfectly adequate, and their sharp needle points give a reassuring sense of precision, but for practical navigation, traditional bow dividers have the big advantage that they can be opened and closed with one hand, by squeezing the bow to open them, and squeezing the legs to close them.

Sometimes it is necessary to draw arcs of measured radius on the chart, for which it is useful to have a drawing compass. Again, the type intended for technical drawing can be used so long as it is big enough, but it is generally better to use the larger and less sophisticated versions intended for marine navigation.

Compasses and Measuring direction at sea

Direction at sea is measured using a compass – essentially an instrument which points north, and goes on pointing north regardless of the movement of the boat around it. In practice most yachts carry at least two compasses. One, steering compasses are relatively large, fixed to the boat, and used to measure heading. The other is usually smaller, portable and is used to measure the direction of distant objects, so it is called a hand bearing compass. Sometimes one compass can do both jobs: on many ships and a few large yachts an attachment called a pelorus allows the steering compass to be used for taking bearings, while on very small craft, a hand bearing compass clipped into a bracket can serve as a steering compass.

There are many ways of making an instrument that will stay pointing in one Direction, including gyroscopes, and what are called ‘ring laser gyros’, but although these have their advantages, they are much too sophisticated, and therefore expensive, to be of practical interest for yachts. The Overwhelming majority of yacht compasses Depend on magnetism, and in that respect can be seen as direct developments from instruments that were probably in use several thousand years ago. Compasses make use of the fact that the earth has a magnetic field, which is very much as though a huge bar magnet were embedded in its core and aligned with its North-South axis.

Any magnet that is free to swing tends to line itself up with the earth’s magnetic field. This effect is particularly obvious in the small, flat compasses used for orienteering and rambling on land, in which a single straight needle-like magnet gives a direct Indication of north. In marine compasses, several such magnets, or a single magnet in the shape of a ring, are mounted underneath a circular ‘card’, with a scale of degrees or compass points marked on it. The whole thing is suspended in a bowl filled with a mixture of water and alcohol, which slows Down the movement of the card, to reduce the swinging that would otherwise be caused by the pitching and rolling of the boat.

Compasses intended for fast motor boats are much more heavily damped than those intended for sailing craft; the rapid slamming of a planing boat can be enough to make the card of a sailboat compass rotate continuously.

Steering compasses

On a steering compass the fore-and-aft line of the boat is marked by a line or pointer on the compass bowl, called the lubber line, against which the boat’s current heading can be read from the card, so it is obviously important for the compass to be installed so that the lubber line is accurately aligned with, or parallel to, the centre line of the boat. Many compasses have supplementary lubber lines offset by 45° and 90° on each side, intended mainly for use in situations such as tiller-steered boats where the helmsman is likely to be looking at the compass from one side or the other.

Of course, there are variations intended to suit particular applications. On many small and medium sized sailing yachts, where cockpit space is at a premium, the compass is set into the aft bulkhead of the superstructure, so that the rear edge of the card is visible, rather than its upper surface. A compass intended for this type of mounting has an aft lubber line and a scale of degrees marked on the down-turned rim of the card. An even more extreme variation is occasionally found in compasses intended for steel craft, whose structure effectively masks the compass from the earth’s magnetic field. This problem can be reduced by mounting the compass as high above the hull as possible, so compasses have been produced that can be mounted on the wheelhouse roof, with mirrors or prisms arranged so that the helmsman effectively looks upwards at the bottom of the compass card.

Grid compasses

Grid compasses, intended primarily for aircraft navigation, enjoyed a surge of popularity after the Second World War, when many boats were fitted out from Army surplus stores! The claim that they were easier to steer by maintained their popularity for at least 20 years and several marinized versions were produced. A grid compass has a card with a particularly prominent north set in a flat-topped bowl. On top of the bowl is a transparent cover, marked with a grid of parallel lines and with a scale of degrees es around its edge. The required course is set by rotating the cover, and the helmsman then steers so as to keep the –. mark on the card lined up with the grid.

Hand bearing compasses

A hand bearing compass is basically a small, portable version of a steering compass, fitted with some form of sighting arrangement that allows it to be accurately lined up on a distant object. They can be subdivided into two groups: those intended to be used at arm’s length, which are usually fitted with a handle; and those intended to be held close to the eye, which are usually supplied with a neck strap. Which kind is best is very much a matter of personal preference, but anyone who uses spectacles or a hearing aid is well advised to go for an arm’s-length compass because even small pieces of ferrous metal such as the hinges of spectacles can cause compass errors if they are only inches away.

Sighting arrangements vary. The classic Sestrel Radiant, for instance, has a prism mounted above the bowl, with a V-shaped notch on top. When the compass is held up at arm’s length and eye level the lubber line and compass card can be seen in the prism. To take a bearing of a distant object, you line up the ‘target’ with the notch, rotate the compass until the lubber line appears in the prism immediately below the target, and then read off the bearing. Another common arrangement has two sights on top of the bowl, like the fore sight and back sight of a gun, and an edge-reading compass card. Close-to-the-eye compasses do not have such obvious sighting arrangements: instead they have a small prism mounted on top, whose optics are arranged in such a way that when you look at a landmark across the top of the compass, its bearing appears in the prism immediately below.

Fluxgate compasses

A new type of compass is rapidly gaining in popularity. Unlike a conventional ‘swinging card’ compass, a fluxgate compass has no moving parts, but instead uses electronics to detect the earth’s magnetic field and present that information on some kind of display. A fluxgate depends on the phenomenon of electromagnetic induction – as used in transformers and the ignition coil of a petrol engine. If you pass an electric current through a coil of wire wound around a suitable metal core, the core becomes a magnet. Which end is the north pole, and which the south, depends on the direction of the current flow in the wire, so if you apply an alternating current to the wire, the north and south poles of the core change places each time the current reverses. If you have a second coil of wire wound around this whole assembly the constantly-reversing magnetic field induces an electric current in the secondary winding.

In a fluxgate there are two cores side by side, with their primary windings receiving alternating current from the same source, but wound in opposite directions. This means that in a magnetically ‘clean’ environment (with no external magnetic influences) the induced magnetism in the two cores would be equal and opposite, so they would cancel each other out and produce no current at all in the secondary winding that surrounds both of them. The presence of an external magnetic field upsets the balance, causing a short surge of electricity in the secondary winding each time the primary current reverses. This effect is most pronounced if the two cores are parallel to the external magnetic field. In a practical fluxgate compass, several fluxgates are arranged in a circle. By comparing the voltages induced in the various secondary windings it is possible to deduce where north is relative to the ring of flux-gates.

At present, the most common use of this technology is to provide heading information for other electronic equipment such as autopilots or radars, but it can also be used to provide a steering display for the helmsman or as the heart of an electronic hand bearing compass. Apart from the ease with which fluxgate compasses can be connected to other navigational electronics, their big advantages are that they can be fitted with an automatic correction facility, and that because the sensor and display are usually separate from each other, the sensor can be mounted anywhere on board and well away from distorting magnetic Influences. Fluxgate hand bearing compasses also have the facility to ‘store’ headings, to save the navigator having to memorize them.

Their main disadvantage is that very large errors can occur if the fluxgate ring is not kept perfectly horizontal. There are electronic solutions to this problem, but the fact remains that the compass without moving parts actually requires more sophisticated gimbal arrangements than its swinging card counterparts.


Source by John Routledge

How Does a Magnetic Speed Sensor Work?


For centuries speed sensors have been used to determine the speed of moving objects. In fact, the very first primitive speed sensors were lengths of rope with a knots tied in them that were tossed over the sides of moving ships to determine how many “knots” the ship was traveling at. However; the advent of the motorized wheeled carriage created the need for a more advanced mechanical speed sensor, such as the type that used a gear and a cable to run a speedometer on an automobile.

A Technological Need

As time and technology progressed however, the need for other types of accurate speed sensors developed. This in turn led to the development of what is often referred to as the magnetic speed sensor. So how do they work? How can a magnet detect and transmit the speed of a moving object?

The Hall Effect

It is not just the magnet in a magnetic speed sensor that is used to determine speed but an electrical current that surrounds the magnet as well. There is a certain electrical phenomena called the “Hall effect” that is used to determine the speed of an object with a magnet.

An Electrical Current

In short, when an electrical current is ran near a magnet and the magnet detects ferrous metal such as iron or steel the electrical current is effected. This electrical effect can then be transmitted by wires to a speed gauge where it can be displayed.

Gear Toothed Magnetic Sensor

Often a gear is used in conjunction with a magnetic speed sensor. As the gear spins or turns, each spline or tooth in it will be detected by the magnet as it passes and a corresponding electrical pulse is sent out. The faster the gear spins the faster the electrical pulses the sensor sends and thus a speed reading is made.


Source by Rosa Telip Ten

Functions And Applications Of DC Motors


The Direct Current motor or the DC motor helps to convert electrical energy into mechanical energy. It is used in majority of household applications and electronic devices. It is widely used in CD players, computers, remote control airplanes, electric razors and so forth. Some of the most important parts of the Direct Current motor include the rotor, armature, stator, commutators with brushes. It is considered to be the simplest types of motor used in many of the electrical appliances. Compared to the AC motor, it is more controllable and powerful.

Working Procedure of DC Motors

A field of magnetism is created inside the device as it is equipped with magnets and electromagnetic windings. An armature is placed in between the south and north poles of the magnet inside the motor. When power is passed throughout the armature, the magnetic field interacts with the field generated by the armature. The opposite polarity causes the motor to turn.

There are basically three types of DC motors which include the stepper motor, the brushed and the brushless motors.

Stepper Motors: One of the most common varieties of Direct Current motors includes the stepper motor. These electrical brushless motors function on the basis of electromagnets that rotate the internal shaft. There are computer controlled stepper motors available in most of the online and offline shops. It is widely used in satellites, Floppy drives, CD drives, toys and scanners. Due to its functional operations, it can be controlled quite easily. But the stepper motors require an external controller as it includes low power.

Brushed Motor: The Brushed motors are considered to be the standard dc motors that can be powered by any type of Direct Current battery. It includes a split run commutator. However, these devices have certain drawbacks. The brushes and the commutator ring come into contact with one another which create friction and considerable damage to the ring and the brushes. Both the ring and the brushes will require constant replacements. The modern brushes are made of carbon which is durable compared to the copper wires. It also causes less friction. These devices are less expensive and easy to operate.

Brushless Motors: As these motors do not include brushes, it is considered to be the most appropriate device. It is durable and includes less maintenance. It is also efficient and powerful compared to the other types of Direct Current motors. It includes an external commutator and a rotor which reverses the direction of the current.

As this motor does not include brushes, there is hardly any possibility of friction and equipment damage. It can therefore be used or heavy machineries and electrical equipments. It is also considered to be cost efficient and durable. It is also cooler than the AC motors and so it last longer.

The DC motor is used in different applications such as boring mills, weaving machines, lathes, shapers and spinning machines. It is also used in air compressors, vacuum cleaners, sewing machines, elevators and hair dryers. Apart from these, it is used for a wide variety of industrial purposes.


Source by Anamika Swami

Magnetic Power Generators Pros and Cons – 3 Things to Know Before You Start Making Your Own


These are the top three things to know before you start building your own magnetic energy generator. While magnetic power is a great source of renewable energy, it also naturally has its flaws. Find out below whether the pros or cons are stronger:

Pro for Building A Magnetic Power Generator

Like solar power and wind power, magnetic power is completely renewable, which means that it is never exhausted. Once you set up your magnetic power generator, it generate you free electricity as long as it is in motion. Thus it becomes an excellent source of electricity for your household.

Magnetic power generation is indeed a fascinating concept. As long as the magnetic field is operational and the rotor is moving, your magnetic power generator is generating electricity for you. True, the magnetic power generator is not that easy to devise and get going, but once you have gotten it to move, you are only making profit. Therefore, it is simply a matter of time for your investment in time and materials to pay for itself. Therefore, magnetic energy generation should definitely be considered in case you are looking to make your own electricity on a consistent basis for years to come.

Con against Magnetic Power Generators

A magnetic generator makes you free electricity, that is for sure. However, it is also quite hard to build and does not make that much electricity. It is no surprise that you do not hear about people making magnetic generators all over the place. So what are the major reasons that people do not go for magnetic generators?

Magnetic generators, unlike solar panels or wind turbines, are not expensive to buy or make. However, they are pretty difficult to make – you need to have sufficient knowledge about magnetic energy and you need to be ready to spend a good amount of time on building your generator. So what is the return on your investment in time and money? It is pretty low in fact, as magnetic power generators do not really make you that much electricity. It takes pretty long, several hours, for a magnetic generator to charge a simple 12V battery. So, in order to make the impact of magnetic power generation significant in your household, you would need to build several of them. This necessity to scale up the whole operation makes a strong con argument against magnetic energy generation.

Pro for Magnetic Energy Generation

Now that things are hanging in the balance with one pro and one con for your magnetic power generation project, the deciding argument has to be made. And this argument comes from the fact that you could offset the time and effort factor against your generator with the argument that magnetic power is a really unobtrusive and independent of natural conditions renewable energy source.

Yes, making a magnetic energy generator is hard, but you can make your own, if you put some time in it, using a proper Do It Yourself guide. Once you have been instructed on how to make your magnetic generator, it is not so hard to do and even a person who is not so confident in electrical installations or general technical work can do it. There are books available, which provide you with textual and visual step-by-step guidance in the process of building your own magnetic power generator. Some of them even have videos, which make it even easier to understand. With this guidance, magnetic generator systems should definitely be looked more deeply into!

These were the top 3 things to know when considering whether to make your own magnetic energy system. There were two pros and one con, so it seems that the argument for magnetic energy systems wins. Definitely, the conclusion is that you can be profitable with a magnetic generator if you make it yourself using a proper step-by-step guide and scale up your efforts. If you have made your mind to make a generator, you can find reviews of several step-by-step guides on the below address. Enjoy making your own magnetic generator!


Source by Nic Masters

Magnetic Energy and Its Applications


Magnetic energy or magnetism is the force exerted between the two magnetic poles, producing magnetization. A magnetic field is an area around the magnet where magnetic or electrical force can be experienced and is a vector quantity which has both direction and magnitude.

Any object that can produce its own magnetic field is a magnet and the direction of magnetic field is the alignment of iron filings placed on a paper over a bar magnet. These imaginary lines are useful mathematical calculations and studies. Electrical currents also produce magnetic fields likewise magnetic fields also exert forces on moving electrical charges.

In fact electricity and magnetism are the same and are related by he two phenomena are related by Maxwell’s equations. Whereas electro magnetic energy will have both electrical and magnetic components and X rays, infra red rays, visible light and radio waves are all examples of electro magnetic radiation. Though these are basically electromagnetic rays their wavelengths and frequencies are different and hence behave differently. X rays are high frequency and short wavelength rays whereas microwave has longer wavelength and low frequencies.

One form of energy can be converted into another form by using converters like batteries or turbines. For instance in dry cells or batteries chemical energy is converted into electrical energy whereas in hydro electric dam potential energy is converted into electrical energy.

Magnetic energy is a good source of renewable energy, which can be recycled to meet the energy needs of the world without causing pollution and it can also be used for even household energy requirements and then recycle the energy back into the environment without producing pollution. The reputed car maker, “Peugeot’ has made use of the same polarity magnetic field application in designing its car, Magnet”. Magnetic energy is a great source of energy and a pollution free replacement for fossil fuels, which is the main reason for global warming and degradation of ecosystem.


Source by Simon Waker Haughtone

Perpetual Motion Generator – A Genius Invention For Home Electricity


For any home owner, one of the biggest monthly expenses is very often the electricity bill. The cost of electricity is more often than not the second biggest expense behind your mortgage. This is hardly surprising given the ever increasing prices of electricity and it is the primary reason why many people today are actively seeking ways to reduce their electricity bills.

It is widely accepted that wind and solar power are two of the most common forms of renewable home energy and rightly so. They are super renewable forms of free energy which are both sustainable in the long term. However, there is one other form of renewable energy for the home which many people are currently unaware exists. It is the idea of producing power by using a perpetual motion magnetic generator.

A perpetual motion generator is largely based on the principal of moving magnetic flow for creating electrical power. This is done by utilizing the attraction and repelling forces of magnets to produce the kinetic energy required to spin a central core of an electricity generator.

These generators can be used to charge a battery bank at home and they can be used easily and safely to provide electricity for your electrical appliances. By running your electrical items from your perpetual motion generator, you will be using less energy from the power grid resulting in a significant decrease in your electricity bills.

If you are genuinely serious about the possibility of building your own perpetual motion generator, you will require high quality work plans to guide you through the process. Don’t be put off by this as they are actually very straightforward to build as long as you follow the right instructions.

A quality guide will clearly describe all of the components required and when and where to fit individual items ensuring your generator is built safely and accurately. You will be shown all of the required electrical components such as the diode, resistor, transistor and switches and provided you have a basic level of DIY skills, you should have no problems building your own generator.

Remember also that unlike solar and wind energy, a Perpetual Motion Generator does not rely on the weather and can be stored in your home or garage. They are a revolutionary way to save on home electricity and lets not also forget the great environmental benefits they have by producing a free, clean and sustainable energy supply to your home.


Source by James K Stewart

Permanent Magnetic Generators Explained – How They Work and Where to Get Them


Over the last eight months, there has been a lot of talk about free energy and generating your own energy at home to reduce your electricity costs. Many people have taken advantage of the diy instruction manuals online to build their own devices such as solar panels and wind turbines, but there are a growing number of people looking beyond those options at some less conventional approaches. Magnetic energy devices are starting to make their mark, but…

What is a magnetic generator?

The device is not dissimilar to a normal gasoline generator, but instead of working off fuels, it utilized magnetic field to generate current. Without the reliance on fuels, this device can run indefinitely without any additional costs. There is a lot of scepticism about the productivity of these devices. Some claim that it is impossible to generate free energy from a device that operates off magnetic fields, but for years ‘permanent magnetic generators’ have been sold on the market and such devices can be purchased online, particularly through the Asian markets.

How does it work?

The fundamental principle in all generators is to turn a turbine to generate current. Every generator does this in its own unique way. Wind turbines take advantage of the wind, whilst regular generators will use either diesel or fuel. The magnetic generator uses the attraction and repulsion forces found in magnets to create this energy. When holding even small magnets close to each other, one can feel the strength of the magnetic field. The turbine in a magnetic generator utilized these forces to cause the turbine to spin. Once this process has begun, the turbine will continue to spin endlessly.

How to get a magnetic generator?

Although it is possible to buy permanent magnetic generators online through various Asian companies, it is much cheaper to build your own. There are some excellent online instruction manuals that show exactly how to build a generator and as they have been written with a complete novice in mind, you will not need to know anything about engineering to succeed with such a project. At a cost of just $250 for a larger device that could reduce your electricity bills by up to 50%, this is an ideal investment.


Source by Jared Owen

Troy Reed Magnetic Motor – Power Your Car And Your Home For Free


The Troy Reed Magnetic Motor is one of many examples of magnetic motor technology. Troy Reed was one of many enthusiasts who tinkered away to develop his own motor based on zero point technology – this allows for the production of power from magnetism and has shattered the world of conventional physics. In this article, I’ll tell you more about the motor and Reed’s other inventions and how you can use this technology yourself so that you don’t ever have to pay for an electricity bill again.

1994 – Try Reed Announces His Magnetic Motor To The World

Reed demonstrated his motor to the world in 1994. He claimed that it could generate 7 kilowatts of power output which is more than enough for the average household’s needs (3 kilowatts).

In his demonstration video, he shows clearly that no wires are attached to the motor while the demonstration bulb remains lit. This would prove that the bulb was not lit via some other power source but was indeed being powered indefinitely by only the motor itself.

The Surge Car

When Reed announced his magnetic motor to the world, he explained that the 7-kilowatt output was sufficient to also power a regular automobile. He teamed up with Hollywood actor and environmentalist, Dennis Weaver, with a plan to showcase this to the world.

The Surge Car was capable of speeds of up to 85 miles per hour. Various videos of it can be found on the internet, with the motor fitting neatly into the engine compartment. Unfortunately, the project never gained any real traction.

How Does Reed’s Magnetic Motor Work?

Nobody knows 100% precisely the design of Reed’s motor. However, it is no secret that it is based on magnetic motor/zero point technology. Reed is not the first person to have produced working models of this technology and he was also not that last.

Zero point physics says that the forces due to magnetism can be converted into energy. This is unlike conventional ideas on power generation which usually require depletion of fuels.

Most magnetic motors require a kick-start of energy to get them going. After this, the system is in a state of equilibrium – the frictional forces from the bearings and air resistance that normally slow a motor down are instead balanced out by the repelling force of the magnets.

How To Make Your Own Troy Reed Magnetic Motor

Unfortunately, commercial devices are at least five years away. But the good news is that you can make your own device at home.

Reed’s motor, like many others, is unnecessarily over-complicated. Instead of trying to copy his design, you will be much better off with a simpler version that will run reliably and with little maintenance.

If you want to make your own 7-kilowatt idea then a better idea is to investing a small amount (around $50) on a good set of working, proven and reliable plans. These will allow you to get up and running in a few days compared to the more usual months and years that pioneers such as Reed and others have spent in trying to come up with a working solution.


Source by Scott Harris

Benefits of Free Energy Magnetic Motor


With the never ending increase of fuel and energy cost, a lot of people are now turning to alternative energy sources in the hope of reducing, if not completely eliminating, their dependence on the power supply provided by huge power corporations. Currently, there are several alternative and renewable sources of energy, including the solar panels and wind turbines. One of the renewable sources of energy that is gaining huge popularity over the years because of its numerous practical benefits is the free energy magnetic motor.

Free energy magnetic generators use magnets to create an indefinite source of free electricity. Through the concept of the natural polarity of the magnetic poles – magnets attract and repel each other, magnetic free energy becomes possible. The natural repulsion or the repelling characteristic of magnetic waves creates a perpetual motion that is being harnessed by the magnetic generator. Perpetual motion allows the generator to create more energy output more than it consumes, hence creating an incessant production of gratis energy.

One of the main advantages of free energy magnetic motor is the fact that it doesn’t require an energy input or external energy source to be able to generate energy. With the magnetic motors, it can function without any problems regardless of the weather condition for as long as the magnets are properly in place.

Compared to solar panels and wind turbines, magnetic motors are a lot cheaper to build. A home set up for solar energy and wind power would equate to thousands of dollars and would require years before one can rip off and start saving. This just simply doesn’t work for most of us, considering today’s sluggish economy.

Today, there are Do-It-Yourself magnetic motors available online. It provides step-by-step and simple-to-follow instructions as to how to build your own magnetic generator at home. For as low as $100, even a normal person without any technological power engineering background can design his own gratis energy magnetic motor. The materials needed are also very affordable and accessible, which may even be found on your junk yard or on the nearest hardware stores.

A free energy magnetic motor is very simple to run and could generate sufficient amount of energy that would be enough to completely supply every household’s power needs. For over two years now, several homes have already installed and used this revolutionary unit supporting the fact that it indeed works. It is an eco-friendly way to cut-off your electricity bill for up to 80%. Like solar and wind power, magnetic free energy is generated without bio-hazards as free energy generators produce no harmful by-products.


Source by Howard Cusato

Three Most Essential Uses of Potassium Permanganate


Are you familiar with the deep purple solution your mother applies to your skin when you had a bad case of athlete’s foot? It did a great, didn’t it?

That solution is made by dissolving potassium permanganate crystals in water. Potassium permanganate is an inorganic but water soluble compound. It is also known as Condy’s crystals and permanganate of potash.

This chemical has a strong oxidizing property that is why it is very useful in many applications. However, one of its more popular uses is in medicine, as an antiseptic and fungicide. It has also been used in water treatment by the army to render potable water. But this practice has been discontinued because it causes stains on the teeth.

Medicinal Uses

Potassium permanganate is dissolved in warm water to come up with a nice pink colored solution which is then ideal for treatment of skin conditions such as dermatitis, eczema, and fungal infections of the hands and feet.

Immersion in potassium permanganate has been proven to be effective for skin conditions but this is largely unpopular because of the stains and discolorations it leaves on the bathing materials such as towels and the bath tub. This can be addressed, however, with dissolving the right amount of crystals. A concentration of 1:10,000 will result to a pink color. Using too much and the water goes black and results to a rather nice but fake tan.

A weak solution of potassium permanganate has been formerly used as an antiseptic wash for vaginal thrush, vulvovaginitis as well as persistent urine infection in both children and adults. It has also been applied as a vaginal douche after childbirth way before the use of antibiotics.

Treatment of Fish Diseases

Potassium permanganate is an effective treatment for various fish diseases and parasites. It is helpful in treating bacterial gill infection and skin ulcers. It dramatically improves water quality by reducing the biological oxygen demand as a result of the oxidation of the dissolved organic matter in the water.

It is commercially used as an oxidizing agent in fish ponds to react with organic matter including bacteria, algae, particulates as well as organic sediments. It is very important to calculate the exact amount of needed chemical for the volume of water since it can cause extensive damage or even death of your fish. It can be used as a pest control for parasitic nudibranches in your aquarium.

However, frequent treatment can harm your fish so wait for a reasonable period before repeating treatment. Disperse the solution evenly throughout the pond and aerate your pond properly after treatment.

Water Treatment

Having a strong oxidizing capacity, potassium permanganate is ideal for use in water treatment. It removes from the water, iron and magnesium which give water its unpleasant color and unpalatable taste. It is added to the water for treatment especially those which come from sources deep into the ground. It also reduces rust in the pipes and other water equipment.

To prevent cholera and other water-borne diseases, wash fruits and vegetables with diluted potassium permanganate solution as well as your cooking utensils such as the chopping board.

There are other uses and applications for potassium permanganate primarily because of its excellent oxidizing property. And also as a result of this, proper handling and storage must be practiced. Always use gloves when handling this chemical since it quickly reacts with the skin leaving a dark brown stain.

It is a strong oxidizer therefore proper storage is necessary and must be kept away from other highly oxidizable substances. It should be separated well away from concentrated sulfuric acid because reaction with these two chemicals can be explosive.


Source by Jo Alelsto